# Bibliography

M. M. Abbott and H. C. van Ness, 1989, *Thermodynamics with Chemical Applications, Second Edition, Schaum’s Outline Series in Engineering*, McGraw-Hill, New York.

First published in 1972, this is written in the style of all the Schaum’s series. It has extensive solved problems and a crisp rigorous style that is readable by undergraduate engineers. It has a chemical engineering emphasis, but is also useful for all engineers.

P. Atkins, 2010, *The Laws of Thermodynamics: a Very Short Introduction*, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

This is a short book by an eminent chemist summarizing the foundations of thermodynamics for an interested general reader.

A. Bejan, 2006, *Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics*, Third Edition, John Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey.

This is an advanced undergraduate text first published in 1988. It gives a modern treatment of the science of classical thermodynamics. It does not confine its attention to traditional engineering problems, and considers applications across biology and earth sciences as well; some readers will find parts of the discussion to be provocative, as received wisdom is occasionally challenged. The thermodynamics of irreversible processes are discussed in detail.

T. L. Bergman, A. S. Lavine, F. P. Incropera, and D. P. DeWitt, 2011, *Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer*, Seventh Edition, John Wiley, New York.

This has evolved since its introduction in 1981 into the standard undergraduate text in heat transfer. The interested thermodynamics student will find the subject of heat transfer builds in many ways on a classical thermodynamics foundation. Especially relevant to thermodynamics are chapters on boiling and condensation, heat exchangers, as well as extensive tables of thermal properties of real materials.

R. S. Berry, S. A. Rice, and J. Ross, 2000, *Physical Chemistry*, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

This is a rigorous general text in physical chemistry at a senior or first year graduate level. First appearing in 1980, it has a full treatment of classical and statistical thermodynamics as well as quantum mechanics.

L. Boltzmann, 1995, *Lectures on Gas Theory*, Dover, New York.

This is a detailed monograph by the founding father of statistical thermodynamics. This edition is a translation of the original German version, *Gastheorie*, from 1896-1898. (preview)

C. Borgnakke and R. E. Sonntag, 2009, *Fundamentals of Thermodynamics*, Seventh Edition, John Wiley, New York.

This classic and popular undergraduate mechanical engineering text, which in earlier editions was authored by J. G. van Wylen and Sonntag, has stood the test of time and has a full treatment of most classical problems. Its first edition appeared in 1965.

M. Born, 1949, *Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance*, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

This monograph is a summary of the Waynflete Lectures delivered at Oxford University in 1948 by the author, the winner of the 1954 Nobel Prize in physics. The lectures consider various topics, and include an important chapter on thermodynamics with the author’s earlier defense of the approach of Carathèodory playing a prominent role.

R. Boyle, 2003, *The Sceptical Chymist*, Dover, New York.

This is a reprint of the original 1661 work of the famous early figure of the scientific revolution. (preview)

P. W. Bridgman, 1943, *The Nature of Thermodynamics*, Harvard, Cambridge.

This short monograph by the winner of the 1946 Nobel Prize in physics gives a prosaic introduction to thermodynamics which is directed at a scientifically literate audience who are not interested in detailed mathematical exposition.

H. B. Callen, 1985, *Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics*, Second Edition, John Wiley, New York.

This advanced undergraduate text, an update of the 1960 original, has an emphasis on classical physics applied to thermodynamics, with a few chapters devoted to quantum and statistical foundations.

S. Carnot, 2005, *Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire*, Dover, New York.

This is a translation of the author’s foundational 1824 work on the heat engines, *Réflexions sur la Puissance Motrice du Feu et sur les Machines propres à développer cette Puissance* (“Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire and on Machines Fitted to Develop that Power”). Also included is a paper of Clausius.

Y. A. Çengel and M. A. Boles, 2010, *Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach*, Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill, Boston.

This popular undergraduate mechanical engineering text which first appeared in 1989 has most of the features expected in a modern book intended for a large and varied audience.

S. Chandrasekhar, 2010, *An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure*, Dover, New York.

This monograph, first published in 1939, on astrophysics is by the winner of the 1983 Nobel Prize in physics. It has large sections devoted to rigorous axiomatic classical thermodynamics in the style of Carathèodory, highly accessible to engineering students, which show how thermodynamics plays a critical role in understanding the physics of the heavens.

R. J. E. Clausius, 2008, *The Mechanical Theory of Heat*, Kessinger, Whitefish, Montana.

This is a reprint of the 1879 translation of the 1850 German publication of the great German scientist who in many ways founded classical thermodynamics.

S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, 1984, *Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics*, Dover, New York.

This is an influential monograph, first published in 1962, which summarizes much of the work of the famous Belgian school of thermodynamics. It is written at a graduate level and has a strong link to fluid mechanics and chemical reactions. (preview)

E. Fermi, 1936, *Thermodynamics*, Dover, New York.

This short 160 page classic clearly and efficiently summarizes the fundamentals of thermodynamics. It is based on a series of lectures given by this winner of the 1938 Nobel Prize in physics. The book is highly recommended, and the reader can benefit from multiple readings. (preview)

R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, and M. Sands, 1963, *The Feynman Lectures on Physics*, Volume 1, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts.

This famous series documents the introductory undergraduate physics lectures given at the California Institute of Technology by the lead author, the 1965 Nobel laureate in physics. Famous for their clarity, depth, and notable forays into challenging material, they treat a wide range of topics from classical to modern physics. Volume 1 contains chapters relevant to classical and modern thermodynamics.

J. B. J. Fourier, 2009, *The Analytical Theory of Heat*, Cambridge, Cambridge.

This reprint of the 1878 English translation of the 1822 French original, *Théorie Analytique de la Chaleur* is a *tour de force* of science, engineering, and mathematics. It predates Carnot and the development of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, but nevertheless successfully develops a theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics fully consistent with the first and second laws. In so doing, the author makes key advances in the formulation of partial differential equations and their solution by what are now known as Fourier series. (read online)

J. W. Gibbs, 1957, *The Collected Works of J. Willard Gibbs*, Yale U. Press, New Haven.

This compendium gives a complete reproduction of the published work of the monumental American engineer and scientist of the nineteenth century, including his seminal work on classical and statistical thermodynamics.

W. T. Grandy, 2008, *Entropy and the Time Evolution of Macroscopic Systems*, Oxford, Oxford.

This monograph gives an enlightening description, fully informed by both historical and modern interpretations, of entropy and its evolution in the context of both continuum and statistical theories.

E. A. Guggenheim, 1933, *Modern Thermodynamics by the Methods of Willard Gibbs*, Methuen, London.

This graduate-level monograph was important in bringing the work of Gibbs to a wider audience.

E. P. Gyftopoulos and G. P. Beretta, 1991, *Thermodynamics: Foundations and Applications*, Macmillan, New York.

This beginning graduate text has a rigorous development of classical thermodynamics.

C. S. Helrich, 2009, *Modern Thermodynamics with Statistical Mechanics*, Springer, Berlin.

This is an advanced undergraduate text aimed mainly at the physics community. The author includes a full treatment of classical thermodynamics and moves easily into statistical mechanics. The author’s undergraduate training in engineering is evident in some of the style of the text which should be readable by most undergraduate engineers after a first class in thermodynamics. (preview)

J. O. Hirschfelder, C. F. Curtis, and R. B. Bird, 1954, *Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids*, Wiley, New York.

This comprehensive tome is a valuable addition to any library of thermal science. Its wide ranging text covers equations of state, molecular collision theory, reactive hydrodynamics, reaction kinetics, and many other topics all from the point of view of careful physical chemistry. Much of the work remains original.

J. R. Howell and R. O. Buckius, 1992, *Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics*, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.

This is a good undergraduate text for mechanical engineers; it first appeared in 1987.

W. F. Hughes and J. A. Brighton, 1999, *Fluid Dynamics*, Third Edition, Schaum’s Outline Series, McGraw-Hill, New York.Written in the standard student-friendly style of the Schaum’s series, this discussion of fluid mechanics includes two chapters on compressible flow which bring together fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. It first appeared in 1967. (preview)

J. H. Keenan, F. G. Keyes, P. G. Hill, and J. G. Moore, 1985, S*team Tables: Thermodynamic Properties of Water Including Vapor, Liquid, and Solid Phases*, John Wiley, New York.

This is a version of the original 1936 data set which is the standard for water’s thermodynamic properties.

J. Kestin, 1966, *A Course in Thermodynamics*, Blaisdell, Waltham, Massachusetts.

This is a foundational textbook that can be read on many levels. All first principles are reported in a readable fashion. In addition the author makes a great effort to expose the underlying mathematical foundations of thermodynamics. (preview)

R. J. Kee, M. E. Coltrin, and P. Glarborg, 2003, *Chemically Reacting Flow: Theory and Practice*, John Wiley, New York.

This comprehensive text gives an introductory graduate level discussion of fluid mechanics, thermochemistry, and finite rate chemical kinetics. The focus is on low Mach number reacting flows, and there is significant discussion of how to achieve computational solutions. (preview)

C. Kittel and H. Kroemer, 1980, *Thermal Physics*, Second Edition, Freeman, San Francisco.

This is a classic undergraduate text, first introduced in 1970; it is mainly aimed at physics students. It has a good introduction to statistical thermodynamics and a short effective chapter on classical thermodynamics. Engineers seeking to broaden their skill set for new technologies relying on microscale thermal phenomena can use this text as a starting point. (preview)

S. Klein and G. Nellis, 2012, *Thermodynamics*, Cambridge, Cambridge.

This is an undergraduate textbook for engineers treating a standard set of topics.

D. Kondepudi and I. Prigogene, 1998, *Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures*, John Wiley, New York.

This is a detailed modern exposition which exploits the authors’ unique vision of thermodynamics with both a science and engineering flavor. The authors, the second of whom is one of the few engineers who was awarded the Nobel Prize (chemistry 1977, for the work summarized in this text), often challenge the standard approach to teaching thermodynamics, and make the case that the approach they advocate, with an emphasis on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, is better suited to describe natural phenomena and practical devices than the present approach, which is generally restricted to equilibrium states.

K. K. Kuo, 2005, *Principles of Combustion*, Second Edition, John Wiley, New York.

This is a readable graduate level engineering text for combustion fundamentals. First published in 1986, it includes a full treatment of reacting thermodynamics as well as discussion of links to fluid mechanics.

K. J. Laidler, 1987, *Chemical Kinetics*, Third Edition, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

This is a standard advanced undergraduate chemistry text on the dynamics of chemical reactions. It first appeared in 1965.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, 2000, *Statistical Physics*, Part 1, Volume 5 of the *Course of Theoretical Physics*, Third Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

This book, part of *the* monumental series of graduate level Russian physics texts, first published in English in 1951 from *Statisticheskaya fizika*, gives a fine introduction to classical thermodynamics as a prelude to its main topic, statistical thermodynamics in the spirit of Gibbs.

B. H. Lavenda, 1978, *Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes*, John Wiley, New York.

This is a lively and opinionated monograph describing and commenting on irreversible thermodynamics. The author is especially critical of the Prigogene school of thought on entropy production rate minimization.

A. Lavoisier, 1984, *Elements of Chemistry*, Dover, New York.

This is the classic treatise by the man known as the father of modern chemistry, translated from the 1789 *Traité Élementaire de Chimie*, which gives the first explicit statement of mass conservation in chemical reactions. (read online)

G. N. Lewis and M. Randall, 1961, *Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances*, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.

This book, first published in 1923, was for many years a standard reference text of physical chemistry.

H. W. Liepmann and A. Roshko, 2002, *Elements of Gasdynamics*, Dover, New York.

This is an influential text in compressible aerodynamics that is appropriate for seniors or beginning graduate students. First published in 1957, it has a strong treatment of the physics and thermodynamics of compressible flow along with elegant and efficient text. Its treatment of both experiment and the underlying theory is outstanding, and in many ways is representative of the approach to engineering sciences fostered at the California Institute of Technology, the authors’ home institution. (preview)

J. C. Maxwell, 2001, *Theory of Heat*, Dover, New York.

This is a short readable book by the nineteenth century master, first published in 1871. Here the mathematics is minimized in favor of more words of explanation. (read online)

M. J. Moran, H. N. Shapiro, D. D. Boettner, and M. B. Bailey, 2010, *Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics*, Seventh Edition, John Wiley, New York.

This is a standard undergraduate engineering thermodynamics text, and one of the more popular. First published in 1988, it has much to recommend it including good example problems, attention to detail, good graphics, and a level of rigor appropriate for good undergraduate students. (preview)

P. M. Morse, 1969, *Thermal Physics*, Second Edition, Benjamin, New York.

This is a good undergraduate book on thermodynamics from a physics perspective. It covers classical theory well in its first sections, then goes on to treat kinetic theory and statistical mechanics. It first appeared in 1964.

I. Müller and T. Ruggeri, 1998, *Rational Extended Thermodynamics*, Springer-Verlag, New York.

This modern, erudite monograph gives a rigorous treatment of some of the key issues at the frontier of modern continuum thermodynamics.

I. Müller and W. Weiss, 2005, *Entropy and Energy*, Springer-Verlag, New York.

This is a unique treatise on fundamental concepts in thermodynamics. The author provide mathematical rigor, historical perspective, and examples from a diverse set of scientific fields.

I. Müller, 2007, *A History of Thermodynamics: the Doctrine of Energy and Entropy*, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

The author gives a readable text at an advanced undergraduate level which highlights some of the many controversies of thermodynamics, both ancient and modern. (preview)

I. Müller and W. H. Müller, 2009, *Fundamentals of Thermodynamics and Applications: with HistoricalAnnotations and Many Citations from Avogadro to Zermelo*, Springer, Berlin.

The author presents an eclectic view of classical thermodynamics with much discussion of its history. The text is aimed at a curious undergraduate who is unsatisfied with industrial-strength yet narrow and intellectually vapid textbooks. (preview)

W. Nernst, 1969, *The New Heat Theorem: Its Foundation in Theory and Experiment*, Dover, New York.

This monograph gives the author’s exposition of the development of the third law of thermodynamics. It first appeared in English translation in 1917 and was originally published in German.

W. Pauli, 2000, *Thermodynamics and the Kinetic Theory of Gases*, Dover, New York.

This is a monograph on statistical thermodynamics by the winner of the 1945 Nobel Prize in physics. It is actually derived from his lecture course notes given at ETH Zurich, as compiled by a student in his class, E. Jucker, published in 1952. (preview)

M. Planck, 1990, *Treatise on Thermodynamics*, Dover, New York.

This brief book, which originally appeared in German in 1897, gives many unique insights from the great scientist who was the winner of the 1918 Nobel Prize in physics. It is rigorous, but readable by an interested undergraduate student. (read online)

H. Poincaré, 1892, *Thermodynamique: Leçons Professèes Pendant le Premier Semestre 1888-89*, Georges Carré, Paris.

This text of classical undergraduate thermodynamics has been prepared by one of the premier mathematicians of the nineteenth century. (read online)

M. Potter and C. Somerton, 2009, *Thermodynamics for Engineers*, Second Edition, Schaum’s Outline Series in Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York.

First published in 1993, this is a standard contribution in the Schaum format of many solved example problems.

I. Prigogine, 1967, *Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes*, Third Edition, Interscience, New York.

This is a famous book that summarizes the essence of the work of the Belgian school for which the author was awarded the 1977 Nobel Prize in chemistry. This book first appeared in 1955.

W. J. M. Rankine, 1908, *A Manual of the Steam Engine and Other Prime Movers*, Seventeenth Edition, Griffin, London.

This in an accessible undergraduate text for mechanical engineers of the nineteenth century. It first appeared in 1859. It contains much practical information on a variety of devices, including steam engines. (read online)

L. E. Reichl, 1998, *A Modern Course in Statistical Physics*, John Wiley, New York.

This full service graduate text has a good summary of key concepts of classical thermodynamics and a strong development of modern statistical thermodynamics. (preview)

O. Reynolds, 1903, *Papers on Mechanical and Physical Subjects, Volume III, The Sub-Mechanics of the Universe*, Cambridge, Cambridge.

This volume compiles various otherwise unpublished notes of Reynolds and includes his detailed derivations of general equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy employing his transport theorem. (read online)

W. C. Reynolds, 1968, *Thermodynamics*, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.

This is an unusually good undergraduate text written for mechanical engineers. The author has wonderful qualitative problems in addition to the usual topics in such texts. A good introduction to statistical mechanics is included as well. This particular edition is highly recommended; the first edition appeared in 1965.

S. I. Sandler, 1998, *Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics*, Third Edition, John Wiley, New York.

This is an advanced undergraduate text in thermodynamics from a chemical engineering perspective with a good mathematical treatment. It first appeared in 1977.

E. Schrödinger, 1989, *Statistical Thermodynamics*, Dover, New York.

This is a short monograph written by the one of the pioneers of quantum physics, the co-winner of the 1933 Nobel Prize in Physics. It is based on a set of lectures delivered to the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies in 1944, and was first published in 1946. (preview)

A. H. Shapiro, 1953, *The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow*, Vols. I and II, John Wiley, New York.

This classic two volume set has a comprehensive treatment of the subject of its title. It has numerous worked example problems, and is written from a careful engineer’s perspective.

J. M. Smith, H. C. van Ness, and M. Abbott, 2004, *Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics*, Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.

This is probably the most common undergraduate text in thermodynamics in chemical engineering. It first appeared in 1959. It is rigorous and has went through many revisions.

A. Sommerfeld, 1956, *Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics, Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Vol. V*, Academic Press, New York.

This is a compilation of the author’s lecture notes on this subject. The book reflects the author’s stature of a leader of theoretical physics of the twentieth century who trained a generation of students (e.g. Nobel laureates Heisenberg, Pauli, Debye and Bethe). The book gives a fine description of classical thermodynamics with a seamless transition into quantum and statistical mechanics.

J. W. Tester and M. Modell, 1997, *Thermodynamics and Its Applications*, Third Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

First appearing in 1974, this entry level graduate text in thermodynamics is written from a chemical engineer’s perspective. It has a strong mathematical development for both classical and statistical thermodynamics.

C. A. Truesdell, 1980, The *Tragicomic History of Thermodynamics*, 1822-1854, Springer Verlag, New York.

This idiosyncratic monograph has a lucid description of the history of nineteenth century thermal science. It is written in an erudite fashion, and the reader who is willing to dive into a difficult subject will be rewarded for diligence by gain of many new insights.

C. A. Truesdell, 1984, *Rational Thermodynamics*, Second Edition, Springer-Verlag, New York.

This is an update on the evolution of classical thermodynamics in the twentieth century. The book itself first appeared in 1969. The second edition includes additional contributions by some contemporaneous leaders of the field.

S. R. Turns, 2000, *An Introduction to Combustion*, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, Boston.

This is a senior-level undergraduate text on combustion which uses many notions from thermodynamics of mixtures. It first appeared in 1996.

H. C. van Ness, 1983, *Understanding Thermodynamics*, Dover, New York.

This is a short readable monograph from a chemical engineering perspective. It first appeared in 1969. (preview)

W. G. Vincenti and C. H. Kruger, 1976, *Introduction to Physical Gas Dynamics*, Krieger, Malabar, Florida.

This graduate text on high speed non-equilibrium flows contains a good description of the interplay of classical and statistical mechanics. There is an emphasis on aerospace science and fundamental engineering applications. It first appeared in 1965.

F. M. White, 2010, *Fluid Mechanics*, Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill, Boston.

This standard undergraduate fluid text draws on thermodynamics in its presentation of the first law and in its treatment of compressible flows. It first appeared in 1979.

B. Woodcraft, 1851, *The Pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria*, London, Taylor Walton and Maberly.

This is a translation and compilation from the ancient Greek of the work of Hero (10 A.D.-70 A.D.). The discussion contains descriptions of the engineering of a variety of technological devices including a primitive steam engine. Other devices which convert heat into work are described as well. (read online)

L. C. Woods, 1975, *The Thermodynamics of Fluid Systems*, Clarendon, Oxford.

This graduate text gives a good, detailed survey of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, especially related to fluid systems in which convection and diffusion play important roles.